PENGALAMAN DAN MANAJEMEN NYERI PASIEN PASCA OPERASI DI RUANG KEMUNING V RSUP Dr. HASAN SADIKIN BANDUNG : STUDI KASUS

ANA IKHSAN HIDAYATULLOH, Earlyana Octavia limbong, kusman ibrahim ibrahim

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26751/jikk.v11i2.795

Abstract

ABSTRAK

Nyeri adalah gejala subjektif; hanya klien yang dapat mendeskripsikannya.  Salah satu penyebab nyeri adalah tindakan pembedahan atau operasi. Jika nyeri tidak dikendalikan, hal tersebut memperpanjang proses penyembuhan dengan menyebabkan komplikasi pernapasan, ekskresi, peredaran darah, dan sistemik lainnya. Sebagai akibatnya, beberapa pasien meninggal, kualitas hidup dan pasien kepuasan menurun, lamanya tinggal di rumah sakit meningkat, dan biaya perawatan meningkat. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menggambarkan pengalaman nyeri, menganalisis manajemen nyeri dan mengevaluasi efektivitas manajement nyeri pasca operasi. Metode penelitian: studi fenomena dengan studi kasus menelaah pengalaman nyeri dan pengelolaan nyeri paska operasi pada 4 pasien di ruang rawat inap Kemuning V RSUP Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung. Hasil penelitian dari pengalaman nyeri pasca operasi bervariasi dan dipengaruhi oleh beberapa faktor yaitu usia, jenis kelamin, jenis pembedahan dan budaya. Pengkajian skala nyeri juga tidak bisa hanya melibatkan satu skala tapi dapat dilihat dari karakteristik pasien, contohnya pasien diatas 65 tahun lebih efektif menggunakan Verbal Rating Scale (VRS). Pemberian analgesik masih kurang efektif karena pasien belum bebas nyeri. Tehnik non farmakologi relaksasi efektif mengurangi nyeri pasca bedah abdomen. Kesimpulan: Format pengkajian berisikan elemen COLDSPA dapat digunakan dalam mengkaji nyeri secara komprehensif. Bagi pasien lansia, skala VRS lebih mudah dimengerti. Pemberian obat analgesic opioid adalah pada skala nyeri sedang-berat, perlu dipertimbangkan mengenai pemberian obat secara prn (pro re nata), dimana perawat dan pasien terlibat dalam pengambilan keputusan untuk mengelola perawatan nyeri akut dan pasien merasa dilibatkan dan memiliki kendali atas nyeri yang dirasakan. Metoda non-farmakologi lain, selain relaksasi dapat dikombinasikan untuk mengurangi nyeri pasca operasi.


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