KONSEP, MODEL ATAU TEORI YANG EFEKTIF SEBAGAI PENDEKATAN EDUKASI DALAM MERUBAH PERILAKU PASIEN DIABETES MELITUS : LITERATUR REVIEW.

Anita Rosman, Saldy Yusuf, Takdir Tahir

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26751/jikk.v12i1.845

Abstract

ABSTRAK

Penderita Diabetes Melitus (DM) tiap tahunnya mengalami peningkatan, apabila tidak tertangani dengan baik maka akan menimbulkan berbagai macam komplikasi. Komplikasi dan resiko dapat dicegah apabila perilaku terhadap pola hidup dan kebiasan pasien DM dapat berubah. Terdapat beberapa teori perubahan perilaku yang dapat di gunakan dalam melakukan edukasi kesehatan pada pasien DM. Meskipun demikian evaluasi terhadap konsep, model atau teori sebagai media edukasi dalam perubahan perilaku pasien DM belum diketahui. Tujuan dari literature review ini adalah untuk mengetahui konsep, model atau teori yang efektif digunakan untuk memberikan edukasi kesehatan kepada pasien DM dalam merubah perilaku mereka. Metode yang digunakan dengan cara melakukan pencarian beberapa studi yang diterbitkan melalui database PubMed, Science Direct, Wiley dan Google Scholar. Strategi pencarian menggunakan kombinasi istilah MeSH Terms. Pertanyaan penelitian dirancang dengan menggunakan prinsip PICO. Studi yang dipilih diterbitkan dari tahun 2015-2019. Setelah dilakukan pencarian artikel dengan kata kunci tersebut maka total artikel yang di review dalam tinjauan literatur ini sebanyak delapan artikel. Konsep, model atau teori PRECEDE PROCEED paling banyak digunakan dalam pencarian literatur ini dibandingkan dengan model yang lain dan salah satu penelitian mengatakan bahwa peningkatan yang signifikan sudah terjadi sejak bulan pertama setelah dilakukannya intervensi.

Kata Kunci :  diabetes mellitus, theory, model, behavior

ABSTRACT

Patients with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) have increased every year, if not handled properly it will cause various kinds of complications. Complications and risks can be prevented if behavior towards the lifestyle and habits of DM patients can change. There are several theories of behavior change that can be used in health education for DM patients. However the evaluation of concepts, models or theories as educational media in changing the behavior of DM patients is unknown. The purpose of this literature review is to find out the concepts, models or theories that are effectively used to provide health education to DM patients in changing their behavior. The method used by searching several studies published through the PubMed, Science Direct, Wiley and Google Scholar databases. The search strategy uses a combination of MeSH Terms. Research questions were designed using PICO principles. Selected studies were published from 2015-2019. After searching for articles with these keywords, the total articles reviewed in this literature review were eight articles. The concept, model or theory of PRECEDE PROCEED is the most widely used in this literature search compared to other models and one of the studies says that a significant increase has occurred since the first month after the intervention.

Keywords : diabetes mellitus, theory, model, behavior


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References


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